Sports Psychology assignment

Sports Psychology


The marble role is one of the projects that engage students mind and body. For the past decades, it has been proven important to maintain a positive state of the brain and mind in sports activities. Sports psychology encourages those engaging in sports activities to be in a positive environment that motivates their state of mind. The purpose of this report is to analyse the rolling marble results. In this project, there were 36 participants; 23 women and 13 men, aged 19 to 43 years. The participants were divided into 3 groups namely, Berwick, Gippsland, and Distance. Each roller had three rolls and the average of all three was calculated.  The implication of this study is that, the game emphasizes more on mental strength and how an individual can handle pressure. Participants had to be consistent to understand the game and win. Before starting, students had a period to understand and familiarise themselves with the task.


Although coaches emphasize more on the physical aspect of sport activities, sport psychologists focus more on the mind. Social psychology obliges the need for athletes to be equipped with the required skills and abilities to win. This field encourages athletes to value mental strategies such as early preparations, relaxation, and coping with pressures of winning or losing. Coaches are also encouraged to promote high self-esteem in participants. Based on the project’s results, one can affirm that students performed well when competing as a team rather than individually. The Berwick group had the highest mean score of 100.7 while Distance had the least mean score of 40.4. The psychology behind this analysis is that, team work motivates athletes to perform well. Team work and team building are essential skills that coaches and athletes should possess to succeed in sports activities. When athletes adopt the concept of teamwork, they are more likely to increase in their work performance (Singh, 2005).

According to Wallace (2010), there is high morale and motivation when people are working as a group in a given task. A continuous interaction in sports activities increases friendship, unity, and mutual association.  When people perform sports activities in groups, they accomplish the task faster and at an easy pace. Working as a team creates a healthy competition. Team work helps a sportsperson to compete with each other and excel in all ways. Teamwork also boosts satisfaction and professional fulfilment. The two factors are also favourable in creating workplace enthusiasm and motivation (Madden & Netter, 2010).

The data for Gippsland represents 6 students who were not overtly competing. The psychology behind this analysis is that, students from this group lacked morale to perform well. Lack of competition creates anxiety and decreases a drive to excel and embrace every obstacle (Tod, Thatcher & Rahman, 2010). Athletes who lack competition are more likely to develop anxiety than those who value completion. Anxiety tends to be highest when there is no competition while self-confidence and morale increases when there is competition. Overall, the hypothesis projected by the results is that, people are more likely to succeed when working as a team and in a strong competition (Chang, 2010).


Basically, students were required to stand behind a line and roll marbles towards the floor. The target was four metres from the line. Prior to starting, all students had an adequate time to familiarise themselves with the task. The project utilized qualitative method to compile the results. Typically, students were divided into three groups. The first group was Berwick with 10 students put into 2 teams competing for the best outcome. The second group was Gippsland with 6 students who were not overtly competing. The last group was distance with 20 students who completed the task individually. The project was comprised of 36 participants, 23 women and 13 men. Each roller was comprised of three measurement rolls and the average was further calculated for comparison.


The data for the three groups is presented in the table below.

Groups Number of Participants Mean Score Std. Deviation Minimum Maximum
Berwick 10 100.7000 47.81690 20.00 193.00
Gipps 6 89.6667 43.49559 38.00 150.00
DE 20 40.8000 32.63934 3.00 127.00
Total 36 65.5833 47.32102 3.00 193.00


The first group consisted of 10 participants and their total mean score amounted to 10, 007. The formula of calculating Mean score is total of mean score values/the number of participants.  From this formula, the first group had a mean score of 100.7000. The other groups’ mean score amounted to 89.6667 and 40.8000 respectively. In group 1, the lowest mean score was 20 while the highest mean score was 193.00. The highest score was derived from Roll 1+Roll 2+Roll 3/3 (227+181+172/3=193). The lowest score was derived from 3+22+36/3=20.  In group 2, the lowest mean score was 38 and the highest mean score was 150.00. The last group had a minimum score of 3.00 and a maximum score of 127.00. From all the results, group 3 had the least minimum score while group 1 had the highest maximum score.  Standard deviation is calculated from the following formula where x represents the total values, m represents the mean score and N the total participants.


The results hypothesised that a low number of mean score reveals great accuracy results. This is derived from the assumption that, few people are more likely to make few mistakes unlike when people are many.  However, a large number of people are more likely to have a high performance than when working as an individual. This is derived from the assumption that, teamwork boosts performance and results. From the results, one can draw a hypothesis that team work boost morale and motivation. Athletes are motivated more when working in groups than individually. However, accuracy is achieved when working with few individuals because they are less likely to disagree with one another. As previously mentioned, the second was not overtly competing and this had a tremendous effect on their performance. Lack of competition may lower the results since there is nothing to challenge an individual.      According to Chang  (2009), it is important for athletes and coaches to understand psychological skills that enhance better performance in sports. Athletes who are well prepared, motivated, inspired, and working in groups are likely to succeed. It is crucial for athletes to understand how to manage competition in their environment. They must develop a competition routine; attain high concentration in the field, and take pride in their strengths. Coaches should promote an understanding and supportive environment. It is crucial for coaches to consult trained sport psychology experts if athletes lose focuses when injured, engage in excessive cognitive thinking, have excessive undesirable behaviours, and when they intentionally harm others. The importance of these results is that, they create insights to readers on the psychology behind sports activities.



Chang, C. H. (2009). Handbook of sports psychology. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Chang, C. H. (2010). Handbook of sports psychology. Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science.

Madden, C. C., & Netter, F. H. (2010). Netter’s sports medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier.

Singh, Y. (2005). Sports psychology. New Delhi: Sports Publication.

Tod, D., Thatcher, J., & Rahman, R. (2010). Sport psychology. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Wallace, R. (2010). Sports camp. New York: Alfred A. Kno

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